Living beings defy neat definition. They fight, they feed, they dance, they mate, they die. At the base of the creativity of all large familiar forms of life, symbiosis generates novelty. It brings together different life-forms, always for a reason. Often, hunger unites the predator with the prey or the mouth with the photosynthetic bacterium or algal victim. Symbiogenesis brings together unlike individuals to make large, more complex entities. Symbiogenetic life-forms are even more unlike than their unlikely “parents.” “Individuals” permanently merge and regulate their reproduction. They generate new populations that become multiunit symbiotic new individuals. These become “new individuals” at larger, more inclusive levels of integration. Symbiosis is not a marginal or rare phenomenon. It is natural and common. We abide in a symbiotic world.

Lynn Margulis
Symbiotic Planet (1998)


Cosmozoaphilia, the concept that the universe, by its very nature, is friendly to life. Starting with life-compatible physical laws, the idea that organic molecules as pre-biotic building blocks originated in space, are scattered throughout, and are incorporated into solar nebula from which stars and planets condense is widely accepted. Most versions of cosmozoaphilia also combine elements of abiogenesis, random and directed panspermia, and exogenesis.

62 Miles

The Kármán Line marks the boundary between the Earth’s atmosphere and outer space, at sixty-two miles above sea level. Sixty-two miles is also the distance, as the crow flies, from Mount Diablo to the Farallon Islands. On a clear day, mountain and islands are visible from each other. A native Ohlone/Costanoan name for Mount Diablo was Tuyshtak, meaning “at the dawn of time,” and the Coast Miwok Indians called the Farallons “islands of the dead.”